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Within the last few days, a few posts have referred to a new position statement taken by the Biblical Research Institute regarding the lunar Sabbath teaching.

Just this last weekend, a friend of mine attended Garden Road SDA Church in Calgary, Canada, where Pastor Ishmael Ali said he just came back from a ministerial meeting and that we have an official position that the BRI has made on the heresy of the lunar Sabbath calendar that he could present and he would do so next week. Pastor Bob also posted, "I was at pastors' meetings just this week in which Gerhard Pfandl addressed this theory and presented the evidence as to why it is not Biblically tenable and why the Biblical Research Institute has rejected it." He has graciously promised to post the full critique when he gets it. (Pastor Bob - are you in the same conference in Canada?)

I have wished for some time to hear an official stance on the lunar Sabbath from the BRI and was happy to hear what Pastor Ali and Pastor Bob had to say. In my eagerness to obtain the information, I just now called the BRI and spoke to a lovely lady by the name of Brenda Flemmer. I asked if I could receive this information and she said, "No, there is no official church stance. There are GUIDLINES, but nothing has ever been voted on. I do not know if they will vote on it - I have not heard of anything along those lines."

While this was very disappointing to me, I would like to offer a gentle word of caution to everyone involved in the disucssion of so vital a topic as the holy Sabbath: We are not the Roman Catholic Church and the Biblical Research Institute is NOT the "Holy Office for the Defense of the Faith" (aka, the Inquisition.) Angel Rodriguez is not the Grand Inquisitor whose decrees should be taken as the Word of God Almighty. As we all must answer for ourselves at the judgment bar of God, there certainly is room to allow each other religious liberty in our beliefs. Some of the name calling that has occured, "lunies", etc. does not honor the belief which the one doing the name-calling claims to espouse.

Whether you are for or against the lunar Sabbath belief, let us all allow each other sufficient liberty of consciense to study for ourselves what we believe. The findings of the BRI should be taken under consideration in the context of one's OWN study - not as the final end-all-be-all of the discussion, for that would make us no different from the Ropman Catholics who do not feel the need to study for themselves as they just have to believe what the Grand Inquisttor has studied out FOR them.

I, personally, would like to see an official position taken on the lunar Sabath. If any of you agree, I would encourage you to call the BRI and request it. Of course, this can only be done by the GC in session under vote, but there would certainly be opportunity for that iat this next session this year. The phone number of the BRI is 301-680-6790.

In the loving and gracious spirit of Christ, Brothers and Sisters, let us study for ourselves.

God bless!

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Are Adventists Keeping the Wrong Sabbath? PART IV

What about the new-moon day?
Seventy two weekly Sabbath days, observed by the Holy men of old, have been pinpointed in scriptures and every one of them is on either the 8th, 15th, 22nd, or 29th day of the moon. This is no coincidence; the reason for this is that they never counted the day of the New moon when counting out the six workdays of the week. The New moon is a worship day all by itself and is not counted when counting out the week. (Arnold Bowen, “The Lunar Sabbath, 1 [ accessed December 17, 2009]).

The Calendar of Israel
It is hard to imagine a people with lives more closely regulated by the calendar than the people of ancient Israel. The Jewish calendar is dated from what is supposed to have been creation: 3,760 years before the Christian era. This year, therefore, is the year 5770.
Most of the 12 months of the postexilic Jewish calendar have names adapted from the Babylonians: Nisan (Neh. 2:1); Sivan (Est. 8:9); Elul (Neh. 6:15); Chislev (Neh. 1:1); Tebeth (Est. 2:16); Shebat (Zec. 1:7); and Adar (Ezr. 6:15). The months do not correspond to but overlap the months of the Roman calendar.
(This may not come out properly either, sorry)
The Hebrew Months
Numerical Canaanite Babylonian
First Abib Nisan March/April
Second Ziv Iyyar April/May
Third Sivan May/June
Fourth Tammuz June/July
Fifth Ab July/August
Sixth Elul August/September
Seventh Ethanim Tishri September/October
Eighth Bul Marheshvan October/November
Ninth Kislev November/December
Tenth Tebeth December/January
Eleventh Shebat January/February
Twelfth Adar February/March

The Israelite year was a lunisolar year of 354 days in which the months alternated between 29 and 30 days, but the seven-day week was not affected by the lunar calendar. The Jewish month invariably began with the new moon. No exact information is available to explain how the Israelites originally adjusted their inaccurate lunar calendar to synchronize with the actual solar year. But we know that in post-exilic times an extra month was inserted between Adar and Nisan. That month, sometimes called Veader (“and Adar”), was added seven times within a 19-year cycle.
Are Adventists Keeping the Wrong Sabbath? PART V

The Jewish calendrical system and the annual feast cycle was tied to the harvest seasons of the Jewish year. The Passover on the 14th day of the first month and the wave sheaf offering two days later always fell in the period of the newly ripened barley harvest, Pentecost 50 days later in the time of the ripening of the wheat harvest, and the Day of Atonement and the Feast of Tabernacles in the 7th month after the remaining harvests (primarily grapes and olives) had been gleaned. This was the general pattern in OT times as well as in the time of Jesus.
Following the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 the Jews had difficulties celebrating the feasts with uniformity because of their scattered condition. Then during the 4th century the Roman state forbade the Jews to proclaim leap years, nor were they allowed to communicate with Jews outside of the empire. Therefore, they developed what became known as the rabbinic calendar which tied their New Years day to a fixed astronomical point -- the vernal equinox (March 21).
In the 8th century there arose a protest against this tampering with the Mosaic calendar. Anan ben David and his followers, later called Karaites, rejected the rabbinic traditions and claimed to base their teaching only on Scripture. As far as the calendar was concerned they determined the beginning of the year and the months by direct lunar observation. Consequently, Karaites often celebrated the festivals on dates different from those fixed by the rabbis. At one stage the Karaites comprised about 40 % of the Jews. In time, however, they lost power and during the 19th century they surrendered to a large extent the battle for their principles and accepted the same calendar as the rabbinic Jews.

The Ceremonial Sabbaths and the Sabbath of the Lord
The lunar calendar did play an important role in the Jewish religious year:
On the fourteenth day of the first month at twilight is the LORD'S Passover. (Lev 23:5)
And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Lev 23:6)
"Speak to the children of Israel, saying: ‘In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you shall have a sabbath-rest, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, a holy convocation. (Lev 23:24)
"Also the tenth day of this seventh month shall be the Day of Atonement. (Lev 23:27)
The Jewish feasts were set by the lunar calendar, the seventh-day Sabbath was
not. It had its own set time and was not considered part of the feasts. The feasts were dependent on the lunar calendar but the Sabbath was not dependent on anything except the seven-day cycle God developed and preserved since Creation. Throughout the Bible there is a distinction between the feasts, new moons and sabbaths of the ceremonial system and the seventh-day Sabbath.
The differences between the seventh-day Sabbath and the ceremonial Sabbaths are significant and important:

Seventh-day Sabbath

1. Made at Creation
2. Memorial of beginning of time
3. Intended to turn men back to creation
4. God blessed and sanctified Sabbath
5. Tied to weekly cycle, always the same week day
6. Could be kept anywhere in world, because the weekly cycle operates free of all calendars
7. Kept every week
8. No work in it
9. Made for all mankind
10. Will continue beyond this world

Ceremonial Sabbaths

1. Made at Sinai, 2500 years after Creation
2. Memorial of events in Jewish history
3. Intended to point men forward to cross
4. God did not bless or sanctify, nor rest
5. Tied to the Jewish calendar, different day of week each time celebrated.
6. Could be known and kept only in the nation where the sacred calendar was in existence.
7. Kept once a year
8. No servile work
9. A part of that ceremonial ritual which was against us. Col. 2:14
10. Abolished at Christ’s crucifixion

As Seventh-Day Adventists, we believe the Sabbath is part of God’s moral law. It is an established seal of God as our Creator that will last forever and was not be done away with at the cross. The biggest distinction between the Creation Sabbath and the ceremonial Sabbaths is that one is perpetual and the others were merely shadows of good things to come.
Are Adventists Keeping the Wrong Sabbath? PART VI

Were the Jews forced to give up their Lunar Calendar?
Lunar Sabbatarian claim:
Most people have had no idea that the eight day week of the original pagan Julian calendar was not recognized by the Hebrew communities at the time of Christ. The mere fact that in A.D. 31 the Julian calendar had an eight day week is proof enough that the Hebrews did not keep it. Instead, they kept the Creation/sanctuary calendar spoken of in Genesis 1:14 which was wholly based on the sun, moon and stars. This accurate, detailed method of time keeping was passed down by God’s faithful, from generation to generation. It was only after Rome conquered Jerusalem in A.D. 70 that the Jews began to succumb to the ways of Rome and her pagan calendar.
(French, p. 3, 4 )

The Julian/Gregorian calendar has never changed its seven day cycle once it changed from the original eight day cycle around the time of Constantine in A.D. 321. (French, p. 3)
The eight-day calendar was changed to a seven-day calendar early in the imperial period before Jesus was born not in the time of Constantine. Now, if the Jews were forced to give up their Lunar Sabbath calendar in exchange for adopting the pagan Julian calendar either in the days after AD 70 or since the time of Constantine, there should be a huge amount of evidence in existence today that this change occurred.
The Jews have always been known as a fairly stubborn people. If they believed God had given them a Lunar Sabbath, they would not have given it up without a major struggle. There would be records everywhere in history about the resistance of the Jews in changing their method of keeping Sabbath.
Since the Jews were spread throughout the nations of the world it would have required an army of missionaries going everywhere to convince and enforce the change of their Sabbath-keeping from the lunar method to the weekly cycle. There should have been pockets of Jews worldwide ferociously clinging to the old ways that God had given them and many Jewish groups still keeping the Lunar Sabbath to this day.
But the exact opposite is true. History is absolutely silent as to any such events taking place. There are no recorded commands given to change the cycle from a lunar to weekly Sabbath, and the Jews today around the world keep the Sabbath on Saturday.
When differences arise between two groups, there is always a split, with some believing one way and others believing the other way. With such conflicting changes to the belief structure of the Jews, we should see such a split among them. There was a split between Jews, but it wasn’t over the Lunar Sabbath theory. It was the split between the Karaite and Rabbinical Jews – and that was mainly over how to calculate the feast days.
The mathematical odds of all the Jews worldwide changing from the lunar calendar to the 7-day week without leaving any historical trace are astronomical – it is virtually impossible. This is an overwhelming missing link for the Lunar Sabbath theory.
Are Adventists keeping the Wrong Sabbath? PART VII

When did Jesus Die?
From Scripture we know that Jesus died on a Passover Friday and was raised early on Sunday, the first day of the week:
Mark 15:42-43 Now when evening had come, because it was the Preparation Day, that is, the day before the Sabbath, 43 Joseph of Arimathea, a prominent council member, who was himself waiting for the kingdom of God, coming and taking courage, went in to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus.

Matthew 28:1 Now after the Sabbath, as the first day of the week began to dawn, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb.

As Seventh-day Adventists, using the 70 week prophecy of Daniel 9, which started in 457 BC, we calculate the time of the Messiah’s appearing to begin in 27 AD. The Messiah being cut off in the midst of the week results in Jesus being crucified on a Friday in AD 31.
Lunar Sabbatarians claim that Jesus was crucified on a Wednesday because Nisan 14 (Passover date, Lev 23:5) must be a full moon (middle of the month) and in AD 31, according to astronomical calculations, the full moon of the first month was on a Wednesday. But if you go with the lunar calendar then the full moon on the 14 was a Friday.
The question is, “How could Jesus have been crucified on a Friday, according to the Julian calendar, when the full moon seems to indicate otherwise?” When the Bible Commentary was written, our brethren wrestled with this problem and after consulting a number of astronomers and astronomical institutions they came to the conclusion:

Tables that purport to give the Christian Era dates for each paschal full moon during the ministry of our Lord are of no real help in this problem for all such tables are based on modern Jewish methods of computing the time of the Passover. How the Jews of Christ’s time coordinated their lunar calendar with the solar year is not known today, all supposedly learned statements to the contrary notwithstanding. It is therefore impossible to determine with absolute certainty the day of the week or even, always, the month in which the Passover of any year of our Lord’s ministry may have occurred. (F. D. Nichol, The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, 7 vols. (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald 1980), 5:533.)

This statement is based on letters received from a number of astronomers, e.g.,

Washington 25, D.C.
The dates of Nisan 14 in the years of the first century of the Christian era cannot possibly be determined by any astronomical calculation; they can be fixed, if by any means at all, only by the study and interpretation of contemporary records. (Ibid., 262.)

H.M. Nautical Almanac Office,
Royal Greenwich Observatory,
Herstmonceux Castle,
Nr. Hailsham, Sussex,
A considerable amount of work has been done on this subject by such authorities as Fotheringham, Schoch, and Neugebauer, but the fact remains that purely local conditions can invalidate even the most careful work in respect of a particular observation of the lunar crescent. (Ibid., 263.)

If the first observation of the visible lunar crescent in AD 31 was observed only one day later as modern astronomical computations suggest, then Nisan 14 would have started on Thursday evening and Jesus would have died in the afternoon of Nisan 14 which would be our Friday.
C. French quotes Ellen White in support of her theory. Ellen White wrote: “In company with His disciples, the Saviour slowly made His way to the garden of Gethsemane. The Passover moon, broad and full, shone from a cloudless sky. The city of pilgrims’ tents was hushed into silence” (DA 685) .
Since the full moon is observable for ca. 72 hours Ellen White’s statement would still be true if Nisan 14 was on Thursday rather than on Wednesday. Furthermore, Ellen White does not give a scientific description of the moon; even two days later the moon would still have been “broad and full.”
Are Adventists Keeping the Wrong Sabbath? PART VIII

According to the prophecy in Daniel 9:24-27 Jesus died in the year 31.

The Week in Scripture
The Lunar Sabbatarians claim that the luni-solar calendar with the Lunar Sabbath can be traced back to Creation and is, therefore, the true Biblical calendar we are to use today. What does the Bible say?
In Leviticus 23 God tells Moses about the yearly feasts, one which is the Feast of Weeks. In NT times it was known as “Pentecost,” from a Greek word meaning “fifty.”
Leviticus 23:15, 16
And you shall count for yourselves from the day after the Sabbath, from the day that you brought the sheaf of the wave offering: seven Sabbaths shall be completed. Count fifty days to the day after the seventh Sabbath; then you shall offer a new grain offering to the LORD.

This feast came on the 50th day after the presentation of the wave sheaf. According to this text, Sabbath is the last day of a repeating seven day-\weekly cycle? This I feel is the fatal flaw in the Lunar Sabbath Theory.
Ellen White:
“Like the Sabbath, the week originated at creation, and it has been preserved and brought down to us through Bible history. God Himself measured off the first week as a sample for successive weeks to the close of time. Like every other, it consisted of seven literal days.” (PP 111)

All the arguments seems to boil down to whether God tied the Sabbath to the lunar calendar, as He did with the feasts, or if He set up a weekly cycle at Creation for the Sabbath and preserved it to our day. There is no conclusive evidence in Scripture pointing to the Sabbath being tied to the moon. On the contrary, the Bible is clear that the week has a recurring cycle of seven days ending with the Sabbath. This is supported by the plain statements of God’s word, the Spirit of Prophecy, and history.
I am sorry that the format for some parts wasn't able to show up properly, particularly the 2 month calendar as it is quite powerful visually, but the important points are all there.

Please share this with everyone you know so that we can start putting an end to this spurious heresy before more souls are destroyed by it. Those who accept this WILL leave the church and become rabid critics.

This is dangerous and a direct assault on the truth of the Bible Sabbath that we have always held as Adventists and that God set up at creation LONG BEFORE any "lunar calendar" EVER EXISTED!

If anyone would like me to email them the document so you can look at it properly contact me at and I will send it to you.

God Bless,

Pastor Bob

Thank you for this long explanation. I wish it had been posted much earlier in the thread. I can see now that these people have been doing some serious twisting of history to come up with their claims, and also that I made a wrong assumption regarding what they were referring to as the Lunar Sabbath.

There is a correction to be made in your explanation however. The date you give for the fulfillment of the 70 weeks prophecy is highly questionable. Information available before the early 1900's make fixing this date difficult if not impossible, and many prophecy teachers made rather convincing arguments for other theories than what we believe. Better history and archeology have since disproven many of those, but there still remains much speculation in the "proving" of these dates.

A worse problem for everyone who does this date setting according to their interpretation of prophecy is that they tend to make the prophetic determination first, then fit their history to it. When archeology and astronomy have made better information available, they then refuse to adjust their history and prophetic understanding accordingly because their "faith" demands that the new facts MUST be false. This is not faith at all; it is stupidity and blinds us to the truth of God's word. God's revelations are progressive and often make us reevaluate what we thought we knew. This includes both spiritual and natural revelations, including scientific knowledge, which admittedly is not perfect either.

I'm leaving a link to a very thorough historical and prophetic study done in the 1990's on these datings. In my opinion there is still a lot of speculation being set forth as truth in this study, but I have never seen such a thorough study done by anyone else,. and I believe it is something we must all look at carefully and study for ourselves.

This is chapter 9 of the book The Secrets of Time by Stephen E. Jones. He is not an Adventist, but he has examined God's Law as prophecy much more carefully and closely than any Adventist has done. We are very weak in this area, inexcusably so since Ellen White in numerous places in her writings tells us that this law is every bit of it prophecy of the plan of salvation. Dr. Jones looks at timing as revealed an required by the law and uses this to help in his interpretation of these prophecies. It is still speculation in many cases but it is valuable and logical speculation. But he does give a very plausible explanation of precisely when Jesus was born, entered his ministry, and died. This considers much information I have never seen anywhere else.

The full book is available on line in this HTML format, or as a PDF file which I will upload here, or can be purchased in paperback at this site as well.
shadows of good things to come. well im sold on the good things to come.
For those of you reviewing the Gerhard Pfandl document...................
Here's the graphic that belongs in the spot in the above post showing all the numbers.

Observations of this graphic;

The new moon days shown in blue are not "new moon sabbaths." They are "new moon" days, but not sabbaths. Scripture is clear on this. Scripture does not refer to them as sabbaths. They have some similarities, but are not scriptural sabbaths.

The "non days" shown in yellow are not "non days" Scripture refers to them as "new moon" days.

There is evidence in scripture of "new moon" days that are two days in length. They are not "non days." Examples have been given in previous posts in the "lunar sabbath not biblical" thread.

Lunar calendar proponents have never attempted to obscure the fact that the 7th day sabbaths on the lunar calendar fall on different days of the gregorian week.

Submitted for clarity
For those of you that would like to read the original document by Gerhard Pfandl regarding the Lunar Sabbath issue that has been posted in parts above, the link should be below.
"There is evidence in scripture of "new moon" days that are two days in length. They are not "non days.""

No, Paul there isn't, but is illustrative of your unbiblical position that you have to constantly refer to phrases such as "it appears", "there is evidence", "suggests", etc without ever pointing to any legitimate evidence.

I trust that the document from Dr. Pfandl will be sufficient to turn those on this list away from this demonic, heretical attack on God's sacred and holy Sabbath.

And again, the weekly cycle originated at creation, long before any lunar calendar ever existed. I implore you to turn away from the direction you are headed in Paul. You are guaranteed to leave the church if you continue on this path of error.

God Bless,

Pastor Bob
Two Day New Moons in Scripture

Old Testament 1Samuel 20

It was on the 29th day of the month that David said to Jonathan, “Tomorrow was the new moon.” (I Samuel 20:5, Jonathan agreed in verse 18) David understood that there would be two days of feasting (Day 30 and Day 1) which is why he requested that Jonathan come into field to shoot the arrows on the third day (the day following the second day of the new moon celebration). David knew that the king would expect him for the two days in question, and he was right. The king ignored his absence the first day thinking him unclean or something, but was wroth when he was not there the second day - 1 Samuel 20:24-30. The underlying Hebrew in 1 Samuel 20:27, 34 where it says 2nd day of the month literally means the 2nd day of the chodesh or new moon (celebration) not the 2nd day of the month as translated. (I asked a Hebrew student). This man didn’t just convince me by his answer. Nature did. Nature is the first gospel. There are sometimes one dark day after the last Sabbath of the month, sometimes two. Here is this calendar puzzle on paper.

Jonathan and David agreed upon the 29th day of the month. David was not at the Kings table on the 30th, or on the 1st. Jonathan shot his arrows on the 2nd. When there are two days of new moon celebration, the second is always the first day of the new month.

In Scripture, the months ALL used to be 30 days in length, for a total of a 360 lunar/solar year. The luni-solar year was originally 360 days long. Twelve 30 day months = 360 day year. Here is the evidence for this. Genesis 7:11 says that the flood began on the 17th day of the second month. Genesis 8:4 says the water prevailed upon the face of the earth until the 17th day of the seventh month. That is 5 months. Genesis 7:24 and 8:3 say that the water prevailed upon the earth for 150 days. 150 divided by 5 = 30. So there were 5 consecutive 30 day months in Scripture, which is not possible with the current relationship between the earth and moon. So, we have solid Scriptural proof that the months were all 30 days in length. The lunar cycle is now 29.5 days rather than 30 day in length. Which equates to some months being “deficient” or 29 days long, some being called “whole” (30 days long). There are 4 seven day weeks in each month, which accounts for only 28 of 29 or 30 days. These other days are new moon days.

It was not until YHVH dented His clock that there were 29 day months. I personally believe this dent occurred in Hezekiah’s time. I also believe YHVH will correct His calendar in the near future, which means a return to a 360 day year with twelve 30 day months and TWO new moon days every month.
The dark phase is new moon, considering that MANY ancient and scholarly resources reveal that Israel observed the Sabbaths on the quarter phases of the moon.

Ezekiel 46:1 tells us that the new moon CANNOT be counted as a week day, the gate to the inner court being shut all 6 working days, open on Sabbath and new moon. So the only way to count the lunar cycle and have the three different types of day be marked off with 3 different phases (AND have the Sabbaths announced by the quarter phases) is for the dark phase to be new moon. The illuminated phase to be for the work week, of which the quarter phases announce the Sabbaths.

Count the month this way, and the Sabbaths will always be on the 8th, 15th, 22nd and 29th days of the month. Interestingly, these are the only dates that any weekly Sabbaths fall on in Scripture. Sometimes there are 2 dark days after the last Sabbath of the month. The only way to ALWAYS have a one day new moon is for there to only be ONE dark day after the 29th day of the month. That single dark day would be the first day of the new month. Day 29 followed by day one. When there are two dark days (the moon is not illuminated) after the 29th day of the month, what do YOU do with them?

When there is only one dark day after the 29th day of the month, conjunction took place on the 29th, followed by one day of the dark phase of the moon. When there are two days of the dark phase after the 29th of the month, conjunction will have taken place on the day AFTER the 29th. Because conjunction splits a day in half (the first part being in the old month, the last part after conjunction being in the new month), what month does this day belong in? Old or new? It is part of the old month because it BEGAN in the old month. A day cannot be part old month and part new month at the same time. The moon is in an elliptical orbit, meaning that conjunction will never (rarely) take place at dawn, when a new day and a new month could begin at the same moment. So the first of two dark days is day 30 of the old month.

This is exactly the scenario found in I Samuel 20. When it says second day of the month, the Hebrew is second day of chodesh. The first meaning of chodesh is new moon (renewal), it only means month by implication. In David’s day, the clock had not yet been dented, so every month was 30 days in length. This is why Saul expected him for two days because every new moon celebration was a two day event. In the context of this passage, BOTH days that David was expected to eat with the king are linked to the new moon.

There is also a two day new moon in the NT:

These going before tarried for us at Troas.
And we sailed away from Philippi after the days of unleavened bread, and came unto them to Troas in five days; where we abode seven days.
And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until midnight. Acts 20:5-7

Paul took five days to get to Troas after the last day of Unleavened Bread, which is Abib 21. So he arrived on the 26th day of Abib then stayed 7 days.

The only way for Paul to arrive in Troas on the 26th, be in Troas for 7 days and speak until midnight of the first day of the week ready to depart on the morrow is if there is a two day new moon. Day 30 and day 1 (the 2 days of a 2 day new moon celebration) would not be counted against the week. Look above and count ‘em: 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 1, 2 (that’s seven days) as he was going to depart on the morrow. The second day of the month (underlined above) MUST be the first day of the week in order for the math to work. This passage is a stumbling block for the Gregorian calendar as there is no way to “create” or force the end of the 7 day stay to fall on the first day of the week successfully.

Further review of Gerhard Pfandl's document will I'm sure be presented.


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